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Industry Profile - Film & TV

Interim Update to July 2019 Profile

January 2020

  • Total operating revenue among all formats of television broadcasting in Canada have been declining gradually over the last five years, dropping at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of -1.37% to $7,066,520 in 2018. Net profit has been more variable over the same time period, with a high of $857,933 in 2016, and a low of $427,960 in 2018.[a]
  • In 2018, the Canadian motion picture and video exhibition industries generated $1.9 billion in operating revenue, marking a 5.7% increase from 2016. The majority of this operating revenue was contributed by Ontario, at 42.7%.[b]
  • Cities across Ontario have been building additional studio space in response to rising interest from international productions. However, a new study projects that the approximately 1.3 million square feet of production space set to become available in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton areas by 2020 will not be enough to keep up with demand. Across the province, the film and television industry is mobilizing to ensure that there are skilled workers available to meet the growing demand, particularly outside city centres and in regions of Northern Ontario.[c]
  • In Fall of 2019, the Ontario government held a (opens new window)Film Classification Modernization Consultation process to determine a replacement for the agency responsible for the province’s film ratings system. The agency’s responsibilities have been taken on by the Ministry of Government Services until the consultation process is complete. The government is reviewing feedback and considering longer term changes to the Act.[d]
  • The Documentary Organization of Canada (DOC) released (opens new window)A Profile of Documentary Production in Canada: 2012 – 2017, an updated profile of the Canadian independent documentary production sector. While the volume of documentary production has shrunk, this remains an important industry which generated 6,000 direct and spin-off jobs and $324 million in GDP nationally in 2016-2017.[e]
  • TIFF commissioned a study on the (opens new window)Professional and industrial impacts of TIFF covering data from approximately 2013-2018. The study found that professional attendance at TIFF has been steadily growing over the last five years, at an average of 1.9% per year. In 2018 the 5,535 professional individuals in attendance came from 87 different countries worldwide, showing the festival’s importance on a global stage.[f]
  • The Liberal Party of Canada won the 2019 federal election on October 21st, forming a minority government. The party made several campaign promises including increasing funding for Telefilm Canada and the National Film Board; and ensuring that content providers (such as Netflix) offer a meaningful amount of Canadian content and contribute to the creation of both French- and English-language Canadian content.
  1. ^ (opens new window)Statistics Canada, Table 22-10-0004-01 – Television broadcasting industry. (Accessed October 7, 2019).
  2. ^ (opens new window)Statistics Canada, The Daily – Motion picture theatres, 2018. (Accessed October 7, 2019).
  3. ^ Playback Staff, “Additional Ontario studio capacity still won’t meet demand: report”, (opens new window)Playback, October 3, 2019; CBC News, “Northern Ontario’s film industry needs more skilled workers, group says”, (opens new window)CBC, June 28, 2019.
  4. ^ Staff, “Ford government to axe Ontario’s film ratings board”, (opens new window)Global News, September 27, 2019.
  5. ^ Maria De Rosa and Marilyn Burgess, (opens new window)A Profile of Documentary Production in Canada: 2012 – 2017, September 2019, p. 7.
  6. ^ Olsberg SPI, (opens new window)Professional and industrial impacts of TIFF, September 8, 2019, p. 6.

July 2019 Profile

Introduction

Ontario has long stood as a substantial player in Canada’s film and television production industry, as well as in the global market. 2018 was a particularly strong year for the Ontario industry, with the film and television production sector contributing $1.9 billion to the provincial economy through 324 productions, up a substantial 18.6% from 2017.[1]

July 2019 Profile

Introduction

Ontario has long stood as a substantial player in Canada’s film and television production industry, as well as in the global market. 2018 was a particularly strong year for the Ontario industry, with the film and television production sector contributing $1.9 billion to the provincial economy through 324 productions, up a substantial 18.6% from 2017.[1]

Industry Size and Economic Impact

Employment and Wages

  • The film and television industry continues to be an increasingly strong employer in Ontario. In the 2018 calendar year, the sector generated 37,000[2] full-time direct and spin-off jobs, marking a growth of approximately 13% from the previous year.[3]
  • (opens new window)Computer Animation Studios of Ontario (CASO) shows that in 2017, the computer animation and visual effects industry was particularly robust, creating 6,580 direct and spin-off full-time equivalent jobs.[4]
  • According to the (opens new window)Canadian Media Producers Association (CMPA) there were a total of 179,000 direct and spin-off FTE jobs[5] generated by film and television production in Canada, 28.8% of which were generated in Ontario. For the first time, British Columbia has surpassed Ontario as the highest employing province.[6]
  • According to (opens new window)Statistics Canada, 56.9% of the Canadian film, television and video post-production industry’s $1.3 billion 2017 expenditures were salaries, wages, commissions and benefits, up from 52.8% in 2015. In comparison, only 35.3% of film, television and video production’s $7.5 billion expenditures were salaries, wages, commissions and benefits, up from 33.2% in 2015.[7]

Production Volume and Budgets

  • A total of 324 film and television projects were produced in Ontario in 2018, approximately on par with the 323 in 2017, and up slightly from the 303 in 2016. Of those 324 projects in 2018, 230 were domestic, and 94 were foreign.[8]
    • Between them, these 324 Ontario-produced projects contributed $1.9 billion to the economy, resulting in approximately $5.9 million production dollars left in Ontario per production, up significantly from $4.95 million in 2017, and $5.6 million in 2016.[9]
This is a stacked column chart displaying the makeup of total film and TV production spending in Ontario in 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018 by format (feature film or television) and by whether it was domestic and foreign. In all four years, domestic television and foreign television were the largest contributors to spending, with domestic television being greater in 2015-16, and foreign television being greater in 2017-18. Total spending has exceeded $1.5 billion in each of the four years, and reached its highest point in 2018 with almost $1.9 billion. Domestic feature film made up the smallest proportion of spending in all three years, followed by foreign feature film.
  • According to the (opens new window)CMPA’s Profile 2018 study, the total volume of Canadian film and television production increased from $8.4 billion in 2016/2017 to $8.9 billion in 2017/2018, an increase of 5.9% that was primarily brought about by a dramatic increase in the volume of foreign location and service (FLS). Of these FLS productions, only 5-10% have Canadian-held copyrights, the rest are held by non-Canadian producers.[10]
    • Of the $8.9 billion total volume, 32% ($2.9 billion) was from Ontario, second only to 40% from BC. However, Ontario’s total volume decreased by 4.6% in 2017/2018, down from $3.0 billion in 2016/2017.[11]
  • In the 2017/2018 year, Canadian French-language children’s and youth production increased by 23.4%, documentary production increased by 3.9%, and production in the variety and performing arts genre increased by 34.7%. However, Canadian content overall decreased by 8.8%, with English-language production decreasing by 9.7% and French-language by 6.8%. Fiction production also dropped by 18.1%.[12]
  • According to the (opens new window)CMPA, Canadian television production dropped overall by 10.2% in the 2017/2018 year, slightly higher than the Ontario-based production decrease of 9.2%.[13]

Revenues and Related Figures

  • From 2014 to 2017, a yearly average of $354 million in tax revenue was paid to the province by the independent media production industry, compared to an average tax credit payout of $296 million per year, meaning that for every $1.00 paid in tax credits, the province received $1.20 back in tax revenue.[14]
  • According to (opens new window)Statistics Canada, the Canadian film, television and video production industry operated at an 8.8% profit margin in 2017, up from 8.5% in 2015, and 6.0% in 2013. In contrast, the operating profit margin for film and video distribution has decreased, from 16.9% in 2015 to 13.0% in 2017[15].
  • Data from (opens new window)Statistics Canada shows that distribution revenue from both Canadian and non-Canadian productions has increased by 11.7% since 2015, but Canadian production revenue increased by only 4.4%, much lower than non-Canadian productions at 14.9%.[16]
  • In 2017, Ontario made up 32.9% of Canada’s $8.3 billion in production revenue; 31.2% of the $1.4 billion in Canadian film, television and video post-production revenue; and 90.0% of the $2.3 billion in distribution revenue.[17]
This is a clustered column chart showing the percentage of film, television and video production, post-production and distribution operating revenues in Canada, by Province. British Columbia leads in both production and post-production, closely followed by Ontario, with Quebec in third place and all other provinces and territories making up 5% or less. Ontario leads distribution with 90%.
  • Of the $8.3 billion in operating revenue generated by the Canadian film, television and video production industry in 2017, 63.9% ($5.3 billion) was generated by television productions, and 19.8% ($1.6 billion) by feature films.[18]
  • A total of $6.9 billion in revenue was generated by television broadcasters (excluding internet-based video services) in Canada in 2017, down by 5% from 2016. Internet-based video services are estimated to have generated $2.4 billion.[19]
  • (opens new window)Telefilm identifies that of the 732 films released to the Canadian market in 2017/2018, approximately 17% were independent Canadian films. These 122 films earned $32 million in box office revenue, a 77% increase on the $18 million earned in 2016. Additionally, while the number of films was lower than the 133 made in 2016, the per film earnings were substantially higher than the $135,300 per film in that year, at $262,300 per film.[20]
  • The Ontario computer animation and visual effects industry contributed $463.1 million in total GDP impact in 2017, up 39% from its contributions in 2015.[21]
  • In Canada, total cinema revenue reached US $830 million in 2018 and is expected to experience a slow growth at a 0.5% CAGR to reach US $852 million in 2023.[22]

Consumer Market

  • A Hill Strategies analysis of Statistics Canada data showed that in 2016, 74% of Ontarians had watched a movie at a theatre at least once, and 91% had watched a movie on a device. Both these figures are 3% higher than the national statistics.[23]
  • The (opens new window)Canada Media Fund (CMF) has completed two complementary studies on Canadian television service usage, one looking at linear television, and the other looking at over-the-top (OTT) usage.
    • In the former, they found that daily consumption of linear television tends to overall increase with age for both Anglophone and Francophone Canadians, though there is a visible spike of 2.24 hours for 16-24 year old Anglophones, compared to 2 hours for the 25-34 year old demographic. In comparison, however, 55-64 year old Anglophones watch an average of 3.02 hours of television per day, and Francophones in the same age watch 3.49 hours.[24]
    • The study on OTT services does not show as linear a progression, though hours of usage are much more heavily concentrated in the 16-44 age range, particularly among Anglophones. According to the study, the demographic which watches the most OTT television in the country is 35-44 year old Anglophones (1.81 hours per day), followed closely by 16-24 year old Anglophones (1.75 hours), and 25-34 year old Anglophones (1.69 hours). The highest viewing among Francophones is 1.31 hours for 16-24 year olds, and the 45-54 year old bracket is the only one in which Francophones outpace Anglophones in hours watched.[25]
  • A study by Parrot Analytics on what Canadians value about Canadian-made content has turned up a number of results. A major finding is that Canadians value recognizability, both of geographical locations and of “the Canadian perspective”. The second highest category was “Canadian values.” Of these values, the highest was gentleness, followed by honesty, community and quirkiness.[26]

Trends and Issues

Growth Rate and Industry Trends

  • Over-the-top (OTT) videos (made up of streaming services such as Netflix or Amazon) have gained wide popularity globally. Netflix and Amazon account for more than 200 million subscribers worldwide and are estimated to spend more than US $17.0 billion on original film and TV programming in 2019.[27]
  • PwC reports that global OTT revenue reached US $38.2 billion in 2018 and is expected to grow rapidly at a 13.8% CAGR and doubling the revenue to US $72.8 billion by 2023. Subscription video on demand (SVOD) gained the most revenue in the OTT category reaching US $30.4 billion in 2018, which was 79.5% of revenue of the total global OTT revenue. SVOD is forecasted to grow at a 15.4% CAGR to reach US $62.0 billion in 2023. Transactional video on demand revenue totaled to US $7.1 billion and is expected to grow at a 6.53% CAGR to reach US $10.7 billion in 2023.[28]
  • Canadian OTT video revenue is expected to grow at a 10.6% CAGR over the next five years to reach US $2.7 billion in 2023 from US $1.6 billion in 2018. SVOD revenue reached US $1.3 billion in 2018, and is expected to grow at an 11.9% CAGR to reach US $2.2 billion in 2023. The Canadian SVOD market was responsible for 77.1% of the total OTT revenue and is expected to account for 81.2% of the total OTT revenue by 2023.[29]
  • A study by Convergence Research has shown that more Canadians will be streaming TV than subscribing to cable by 2020. The Over-The-Top media services (OTT) revenue numbers from 2018 reflect this, with $1.12 billion in 2018 (up 33% from 2017). In contrast, cable and satellite revenue declined to $8.58 billion, marking the third year in a row with a 2% decline.[30]
  • The (opens new window)CMF study on linear television also shows that increasing numbers of Canadians are “cutting the cord” (i.e. cancelling linear television subscriptions) with 357,000 in 2017 and a projection of 406,000 in 2018. This would suggest that younger demographics are increasingly trending towards other methods of television viewing, a theory which is reinforced by a Communications Management Inc. study showing that 44.5% of Canadian households that were cord-cutters or cord-nevers were under the age of 30, compared to only 3.9% who were 65 and over.[31]
  • According to PwC, global cinema revenue reached US $44.8 billion in 2018 and is expected to grow at a 4.4% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) to reach US $55.5 billion by 2023. Globally the number of screens are increasing. Cinema screens in North America are experiencing a growth at a 0.5% CAGR, and are projected to reach 44,774 screens in 2023 from 43,761 in 2018. Enhanced facilities like IMAX are contributing to a growth in audiences in markets around the world including the US, the UK, Russia and China.[32]

Global and Domestic Issues

  • The issues of equal gender representation in the screen sector has been a major topic in recent years, with organizations such as (opens new window)Telefilm, the (opens new window)National Film Board (NFB) and (opens new window)CBC committing to a 50/50 gender parity by 2020. Telefilm is approaching parity in number of projects with female scriptwriters, directors and producers, but is still falling short of the mark in terms of funding. Studies such as (opens new window)Women In View’s Women in View On Screen 2019 report highlights the extent to which the screen industry still needs to increase inclusion for women in film and television, particularly women of colour and Indigenous women.[33]
  • Underrepresentation of female characters is also an issue in children’s programming. A new report by the Center for Scholars & Storytellers shows that male characters are still dominant in children’s television, particularly non-human male characters. In 2017, only 38% of main characters were female in American children’s television programming, and only 35% in Canadian programming. While the American percentage increased from 2007, the Canadian number remained fairly consistent.[34]
  • There has also been more discussion about the inclusion of Indigenous people and people of colour in the screen industry, which (opens new window)Women in View also discussed in their 2019 report. The report shows that while women have made moderate advances in key creative roles, women of colour and Indigenous women have not shared the same benefits. Telefilm has also committed to provide a minimum of $4 million to Indigenous filmmakers, a target which they exceeded.[35]
  • (opens new window)imagineNATIVE, a Canadian organization and international leader in Indigenous screen content, have released two reports in 2019 which further discuss Indigenous presence in the screen sector. One outlines case studies of successful Indigenous screen-based properties and results of a survey of festivals featuring Indigenous content. The other provides protocols and guidelines for working with Indigenous communities, cultures, concepts and stories.[36]
  • Interviewees for the 2018 Focus on Features report by the (opens new window)Directors Guild of Canada, the (opens new window)Producers Roundtable of Ontario, the (opens new window)Writers Guild of Canada and (opens new window)Ryerson University identified concerns about a lack of diversity in the film industry, feeling that gender and racial diversity is important to being able to let a wide range of audiences feel included in and represented by the content they see on screen. Fortunately, the industry is beginning to take note of this, with data sets such as the (opens new window)Alliance of Canadian Cinema, Television and Radio Artists (ACTRA)’s census of its Ontario members aimed at shedding a light on representation of minority demographics based on factors such as age, gender, sexual identity, diverse ability and racial identity.[37]
  • There continues to be a desire in Canada for content in non-majority languages, throughout the country. Within Quebec, 41% of those interviewed by a (opens new window)Telefilm study felt that seeing English-language productions was important, and 31% of interviewees throughout the rest of Canada felt that French-language productions were important.[38]
  • The definition of “feature film” is evolving, in part as a result of OTT-developed films which do not always see theatrical release. Focus on Features suggests that a new definition should be developed, because definitions used in funding guidelines can become outdated, potentially restricting the funding available to some productions.[39]
  • Canadian content is more in demand in the United States than in Canada, with 13% higher demand. Across all digital original titles in 2018, 67% of Canadian demand was for Netflix content, followed by 11% for Amazon Prime Video and 10% for Hulu.[40]
  • The investment by OTT services in local screen industry productions is increasing. Netflix currently holds 22% of foreign financing of English-language Canadian fiction programming, a number which is likely to continue to rise. However, some are warning that this may lead to further co-opting of Canadian content by industry giants like Netflix, to the detriment of the Canadian industry itself, particularly in regards to intellectual property ownership of internationally successful productions.[41]
  • Piracy of film and television has a high cost to the industry, particularly to streaming services. A report by Digital TV Research examined the impact of piracy in 138 countries, and projected $52 billion in lost subscription and ad revenue for streaming services between 2016 and 2022.[42]
  • Amazon is introducing a new streaming service in Canada called Prime Video Channels, which will operate similar to a conventional cable package. It will allow Amazon Prime Video subscribers the option to purchase from thirteen live and on-demand programming channels. The service has been live in the United States for some time, with a total of over 150 channels, though Canadian broadcasters may be opposed to the growth of this service, as they have been with the increasing prevalence of American streaming companies.[43]
  • Eligibility criteria have been expanded for (opens new window)Telefilm Canada’s Talent to Watch Program, which provides funding to emerging feature film and narrative web project creators. Key changes include partners’ ability to recommend emerging producers and writers who are not recently graduated from one of the partner’s production programs, the ability of partners to recommend Indigenous projects within certain criteria, and the designation of partners to reach diverse parts of Canada.[44]
  • Producer William Woods and several of his finance collaborators are launching the Line 200 Inc., a $2.5 million fund supporting international co-productions and Canadian feature films which have challenging themes and new perspectives. The first project under this fund will be Canadian-made Castle in the Ground.[45]
  • Based on recent announcements, Ontario’s studio space infrastructure is expected to expand by 2.2 million sq. ft. across 11 facilities by 2022. When expansion is complete, Ontario’s soundstage footprint will have increased from 1.8 million sq. ft. to 4 million sq. ft.
  • Stage space growth is not limited to Toronto. Developments are expected in Hamilton, Markham, Mississauga, Ottawa, and Pickering, yielding well-paying job opportunities for these communities.
  • Netflix has taken up long term leases within eight different soundstages in Ontario, four each in Pinewood Toronto Studios and Cinespace. Hulu, Amazon and other companies are also making heavy use of Ontario stages and crews to support their own original content creation.[46]
  • Aeon Studio Group (ASG) has announced that it has signed a memorandum of understanding ratified by Hamilton city council regarding plans to build the “Hamilton Studio District,” a film and television hub on the Barton-Tiffany Lands in Hamilton.[47]
  • Netflix has entered into several partnerships to broaden the diversity of Canada-made content. The streaming giant has announced new partnerships with (opens new window)imagineNATIVE, the (opens new window)Indigenous Screen Office, and (opens new window)Wapikoni Mobile to help support and develop Indigenous Canadian screen talent and content. These agreements will include producers’ and directors’ labs, “second-phase support”, and mentoring and coaching to Indigenous youth. Netflix has also partnered with the (opens new window)Alliance des producteurs francophones du Canada (APFC), (opens new window)Telefilm Canada and the (opens new window)Canada Media Fund (CMF) to create a film and TV professional development program to support Canadian minority francophone creators. The program will run from 2019 to 2022, and bring in participants from Atlantic Canada, Ontario, and Western Canada.[48]

Government Support

  • The (opens new window)CMF has changed their development funding guidelines to allow Canadian screenwriters to apply for development funding without having a commitment from a Canadian broadcaster. They will also not be required to pitch their work to a Canadian broadcaster, and can instead pitch to a global OTT platform while still qualifying for funding.[49]
  • In their 2019 budget, the Ontario provincial government noted the importance of the film and TV sector as an economic driver and significant creator of jobs in the province, and committed to establishing a Minister’s Film and TV Advisory Panel. [50]
  • (opens new window)Cultural Industries Ontario North (CION) has received an increase of $850,000 in funding from FedNor, the Canadian government’s economic development organization serving Northern Ontario. The funding will help support CION’s operations for the next three years, as well as being used to attract more private sector interest to the region.[51]

Industry Recognition

  • The 2019 Oscar for Best Animated Short Film went to Pixar’s Bao, which was written and directed by Canadian artist and director Domee Shi. Two other Canadian-created films were also nominated in this category, as well as two more in the Live Action Short Film category. Other Canadian representation at the Oscars included Paul Massey, who won for sound mixing on Bohemian Rhapsody.
  • The documentary Prey by Windsor director Matt Gallagher won the DGC Special Jury Prize for Canadian Feature Documentary at Hot Docs, as well as the Rogers Audience Award for Best Canadian Documentary.
  • Ontario was well represented at the Academy of Canadian Cinema and Television Awards. In addition to many nominations, Toronto-based director Jasmin Mozaffari won 2019 Achievement in Director for her film Firecrackers, which also won for 2019 Achievement in Editing. Through Black Spruce won 2019 Achievement in Music – Original Score, and Ontario Creates-funded film The Grizzlies won 2019 Achievement in Music – Original Song. The award for 2019 Adapted Screenplay went to Stockholm. Finally, Anthropocene: The Human Epoch won the 2019 Ted Rogers Best Feature Length Documentary Award, as well as the award for 2019 Best Cinematography in a Feature Length Documentary.

Profile current as of July 22, 2019

Endnotes

  1. ^ (opens new window)Ontario Creates, (opens new window)2018 Production Statistics, 2019. Data represents expenditures of all productions using Ontario Creates-administered incentives and services. Data does not include television commercials, corporate videos, music videos, or broadcaster in-house production.
  2. ^ This stat encompasses work on both domestic and foreign feature films, televisions series, television movies, mini-series, specials, and pilots.
  3. ^ (opens new window)Ontario Creates, 2018 Production Statistics, 2019. Data represents expenditures of all productions using Ontario Creates-administered incentives and services. Data does not include television commercials, corporate videos, music videos, or broadcaster in-house production; (opens new window)Ontario Creates, 2017 Production Statistics, 2018. Data represents expenditures of all productions using Ontario Creates-administered incentives and services. Data does not include television commercials, corporate videos, music videos, or broadcaster in-house production.
  4. ^ (opens new window)Computer Animation Studios of Ontario, (opens new window)Business Intelligence: Ontario's Computer Animation and Visual Effects Companies, 2018, January 2019, p. 3.
  5. ^ This stat encompasses work on Canadian television production, Canadian theatrical feature film production, foreign language shooting (FLS) production and broadcaster in-house production.
  6. ^ (opens new window)Canadian Media Producers Association, Profile 2018: Economic Report on the Screen-Based Media Production Industry in Canada, March 2019, p. 14.
  7. ^ (opens new window)Statistics Canada, Table 21-10-0067-01 – Film, television and video post-production, industry expenditures. (Accessed April 26, 2019); (opens new window)Statistics Canada, Table 21-10-0079-01 – Film, television and video production, industry expenditures. (Accessed April 26, 2019).
  8. ^ (opens new window)Ontario Creates, 2018 Production Statistics, 2019. Data represents expenditures of all productions using Ontario Creates-administered incentives and services. Data does not include television commercials, corporate videos, music videos, or broadcaster in-house production.
  9. ^ Ibid.
  10. ^ (opens new window)Canadian Media Producers Association, Profile 2018: Economic Report on the Screen-Based Media Production Industry in Canada, March 2019, pp. 8, 7.
  11. ^ Ibid, p. 10.
  12. ^ Ibid, p. 19.
  13. ^ Ibid, p. 25.
  14. ^ (opens new window)Film Ontario, Ontario’s Screen-based Industry: An Economic Profile for 2018, October 2018, p. 5.
  15. ^ (opens new window)Statistics Canada, Table 21-10-0059-01 – Film, television and video production, summary statistics. (Accessed April 26, 2019); (opens new window)Statistics Canada, Table 21-10-0068-01 – Film and video distribution, summary statistics. (Accessed April 26, 2019).
  16. ^ (opens new window)Statistics Canada, Table 21-10-0074-01 – Film and video distribution, distribution revenue (x1,000,000). (Accessed April 26, 2019).
  17. ^ (opens new window)Statistics Canada, The Daily – Film, television and video production, 2017. (Accessed April 26, 2019); (opens new window)Statistics Canada, Film, television and video post-production, 2017. (Accessed April 26, 2019); (opens new window)Statistics Canada, The Daily – Film and video distribution, 2017. (Accessed April 26, 2019).
  18. ^ (opens new window)Statistics Canada, Film, television and video production, 2017. (Accessed April 26, 2019).
  19. ^ (opens new window)Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission, Communications Monitoring Report 2018, 2019, pp. 224, 248.
  20. ^ (opens new window)Telefilm Canada, Eye on the World: 2017-2018 Annual Report, 2019, p. 18.
  21. ^ (opens new window)Computer Animation Studios of Ontario, (opens new window)Business Intelligence: Ontario's Computer Animation and Visual Effects Companies, 2018, January 2019, p. 3.
  22. ^ (opens new window)PwC, Global Entertainment & Media Outlook 2019-2023, “Cinema,” June 2019.
  23. ^ Kelly Hill, “Arts, Culture, and Heritage Participation in Canada’s Provinces and Largest Census Metropolitan Areas in 2016,” (opens new window)Hill Strategies, March 20, 2019.
  24. ^ (opens new window)CMF Trends, “The State of Linear Television in Canada”, CMF Trends, April 5, 2019.
  25. ^ (opens new window)CMF Trends, “A Look at Over-the-Top Television Services in Canada”, CMF Trends, May 1, 2019.
  26. ^ (opens new window)Parrot Analytics, What Canadians think Canadian TV does better than anywhere else, 2018, pp. 3, 5.
  27. ^ (opens new window)PwC, Global Entertainment & Media Outlook 2019-2023, “OTT video,” June 2019.
  28. ^ Ibid.
  29. ^ Ibid.
  30. ^ Kristyn Anthony, “Canada’s couch potatoes peeling away from traditional TV,” (opens new window)Playback, April 26, 2019.
  31. ^ (opens new window)CMF Trends, “The State of Linear Television in Canada”, CMF Trends, April 5, 2019; (opens new window)Communications Management Inc, Cord-cutting in Canada: Tracking the trends, December 19, 2018.

  32. ^ (opens new window)PwC, Global Entertainment & Media Outlook 2019-2023, “Cinema,” June 2019.
  33. ^ (opens new window)Telefilm Canada, Eye on the World: 2017-2018 Annual Report, 2019, p. 8; (opens new window)Women in View, (opens new window)Women in View On Screen 2019, 2019.
  34. ^ Jeremy Dickson, “Representation report card: Where kids content is failing,” (opens new window)Playback, April 18, 2019.
  35. ^ (opens new window)Women in View, (opens new window)Women in View On Screen 2019, 2019; (opens new window)Telefilm Canada, Eye on the World: 2017-2018 Annual Report, 2019, p. 8.
  36. ^ (opens new window)imagineNATIVE, (opens new window)Pathways to the International Market for Indigenous Screen Content: Success Stories, Lessons Learned from Selected Jurisdictions and a Strategy for Growth, 2019; imagineNATIVE, (opens new window)On Screen Protocols & Pathways : A Media Production Guide to Working with First Nations, Metis and Inuit Communities, Cultures, Concepts and Stories, 2019.
  37. ^ (opens new window)Directors Guild of Canada, (opens new window)Producers Roundtable of Ontario, (opens new window)Writers Guild of Canada and (opens new window)Ryerson University, Focus on Features: The future of Filmmaking in Ontario, 2018, p. 37; (opens new window)ACTRA, Ontario ACTRA Census, 2019.
  38. ^ (opens new window)Telefilm Canada, Canadian Audience Report: Focus on official language minority communities in Canada, 2018, p. 13.
  39. ^ (opens new window)Directors Guild of Canada, (opens new window)Producers Roundtable of Ontario, (opens new window)Writers Guild of Canada and (opens new window)Ryerson University, (opens new window)Focus on Features: The future of Filmmaking in Ontario, 2018, p. 10.
  40. ^ (opens new window)Parrot Analytics, The Global Television Demand Report, 2019, pp. 29, 30.
  41. ^ Laurianne Désormiers, “OTTs and Canadian Content: What Collaborative Models for the Future?”, (opens new window)CMF Trends, February 5, 2019.
  42. ^ Anjuli Patil, “Film, TV studios filing lawsuits against Canadian BitTorrent users,” (opens new window)CBC, April 17, 2019; Stewart Clarke, “Piracy Set to Cost Streaming Players More Than $50 Billion, Study Says,” (opens new window)Variety, October 30, 2017.
  43. ^ David Friend, “Amazon aims to get a larger share of Canadian TV audience with new streaming service,” (opens new window)The Globe and Mail, June 3, 2019.
  44. ^ (opens new window)Telefilm Canada, “Talent to Watch program,” Telefilm Canada, December 5, 2018.
  45. ^ Jeremy Kay, “Producer William Woods launches $2.5m Line 200 fund”, (opens new window)ScreenDaily, May 14, 2019.
  46. ^ Etan Vlessing, “Why Hollywood’s Streaming Wars Sparked an Ontario Soundstage Surge,” (opens new window)The Hollywood Reporter, May 15, 2019.
  47. ^ Adam Carter, “Massive film and TV hub planned for Barton-Tiffany Lands,” (opens new window)CBC, June 18, 2019.
  48. ^ Victoria Ahearn, The Canadian Press, “Netflix partners with Indigenous cultural groups to develop talent in Canada,” (opens new window)CityNews, June 11, 2019; Lauren Malyk, “Netflix partners with APFC to support francophone creators,” (opens new window)Playback, June 10, 2019.
  49. ^ Jordan Pinto, “Will new CMF guidelines be a boon for Canadian screenwriters?,” (opens new window)Playback, April 9, 2019.
  50. ^ (opens new window)Province of Ontario, “2019 Ontario Budget: Protecting What Matters Most,” 2019, p. 223.
  51. ^ Sudbury.com Staff, “ONTARIO: Sudbury film industry gets 850K boost”, (opens new window)SOOTODAY, April 25, 2019.